Civil Law (Legal System)
Ellison Travel & Excursions is dedicated to providing accessible customer service. En Estados Unidos un attorney puede defender a sus clientes tanto en las cortes federales como en las estatales. En ocasiones sólo cobran sus honorarios si ganan el caso (no win, no fee), lo cual les permite representar a clientes con pocos recursos sin cobrarles, si se trata de casos de gran repercusión social, con la esperanza de obtener beneficios considerables si lo ganan. Ésta es la razón por la que las compensaciones que se piden por daños y perjuicios suelen ser tan altas y llegan tantos casos a los tribunales. También existe la figura del abogado de oficio, que recibe el nombre de public defender.
Other courts, for example, the Court of Customs and Patent Appeals and the Supreme Court, always sit en banc, and thus the later decision controls. These courts essentially overrule all previous cases in each new case, and older cases survive only to the extent they do not conflict with newer cases. The interpretations of these courts—for example, Supreme Court interpretations of the constitution or federal statutes—are stable only so long as the older interpretation maintains the support of a majority of the court. Older decisions persist through some combination of belief that the old decision is right, and that it is not sufficiently wrong to be overruled.
The role of the legal academy presents a significant “cultural” difference between common law ( connotation 2 ) and civil law jurisdictions. In both systems, treatises compile decisions and state overarching principles that (in the author’s opinion) explain the results of the cases. In neither system are treatises considered “law,” but the weight given them is nonetheless quite different.
Retrospective laws are, primd facie of questionable policy, and contrary to the general principle that legislation by which the conduct of mankind is to be regulated ought, when introduced for the first time, to deal with future acts, and ought not to change the character of past transactions carried on upon the faith of the then existing law. Leges et constitutiones futuris certum est dare formam negotiis non ad facta proBterita revocari; nisi nominatim et de praiterito tempore et adhuc pendentibus negotiis cautum sit.
7. Judge Swift, in his System of the Laws of Connecticut, prefers the term civil law, to that of municipal law. He considers the term municipal to be too limited in its signification. He defines civil law to be a rule of human action, adopted by mankind in a state of society, or prescribed by the supreme power of the government, requiring a course of conduct not repugnant to morality or religion, productive of the greatest political happiness, and prohibiting actions contrary thereto, and which is enforced by the sanctions of pains and penalties. 1 Sw. Syst. 37. See Ayl. Pand. B. 1, t. 2, p. 6.